浙江风采网

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阿道夫-希特勒的艺术野心

添加时间:2020-01-14
  

希特勒

浙江风采网 DAOYU:XITELEZUICHUHUAIYOUYISHUYEXIN,XIANGZUOMIKAILANGQILUONEIYANGDEHUAJIA。XIZAIZHIDACAISHU,YANGAOSHOUDI,ZAIWEIYENAJIETOULIULANGZHISHI,YIHUAMINGXINPIANMIANQIANGDURI。DENGSHANGDISANDIGUOZONGLIBAOZUOZHIHOU,TADUIHUIHUACHIXINWEIGAI,DUIJIAXIANGLINCIWEINENGWANGHUAI,YAOZAINEILIJIANLIYISHUBOWUGUAN,YUSHIBIANYOULESUOWEIDE“LINCITEBIERENWU”。

希特勒自画像

XITELECHUANGZUOYU1910NIANDEZIHUAXIANG,PANGBIANXIEZHETAXINGMINGDESHOUZIMU“A. H.”

HAENSI-KELISIDIAN-LUOER(HannsChristianLoehr)BIYEYUBOENDAXUE,HUOBOSHIXUEWEI,ZI2002NIANZAIBOLINZIYOUDAXUEGUOJIWENHUAGONGGONGMEITIJIAOLIUSHIYANJIUSHIGONGZUO。《DISANDIGUODEYISHUBOWUGUAN:XITELEYU“LINCITEBIERENWU”》ZHIWAI,LUOERHAIZHUYOU《TIEWANSHOUZANGZHEHEERMAN-GELIN:DISANDIGUODEYISHUHEFUBAI》。1933NIANZHI1945NIANJIAN,DISANDIGUOYISHUPINDELIUZHUANHEJIAOYICHENGQIANSHANGWANJIAN,NEIXIEYIYANKANQUWUKEZHIZEZUODEHENPIAOLIANGDEJIAOYIDEBEIHOUWANGWANGSHIQIAOQUHAODUO,SHENZHIJINTOUZHEXUELEI。《DISANDIGUODEYISHUBOWUGUAN》YISHUJIUSHIYAOJIANGZHEIXIEJIAOYISONGSHANGJIANYANTAI、SHENPANTAI。ZHEILIJIUMIANBULEYOUFANSUODEKAOZHENG,WOYOUSHIJIUYIBIDAIGUO,ERJIANGJIESHAODEZHONGDIANFANGZAI“ZUOWEIHUAJIAHEYISHUPINSHOUZANGRENDEYUANSHOU”DEDIERZHANG。

浙江风采网 WOMENZHIDAO,NACUIBUGUANGYOUCHONGFENGDUI、DANGWEIJUN、GAISHITAIBAO,YOUGAOJINGJIANDEWUQI,YOUJIZHONGYING、FENSHILU、MIEJUEYING,TAMENHAIYOU“WEN”DEYISHOU。GEPEIERSHANYUSHUAZUIPIZI、BIGANZI;XITELEYECENGWUWENNONGMO,XIECHU《WODEFENDOU》。ZAITA1933NIANFENMODENGCHANGDANGSHANGLEDISANDIGUOZONGLIZHIQIAN,YIZHINIANNIANBUWANGDESHITADEYISHUMENG。LUOERDESHUPILU:“TACENGXIANGYIGEPENGYOUTANCHEN,TADESHENGHUOMUBIAOJIUSHIYAOCHENGWEIMIKAILANGQILUONEIYANGDEYISHUJIA。……RUGUOMEIYOU1918NIANDEKUIBAI,TAJIUBUHUICHENGWEIYIGEZHENGZHIJIA。”KETAXUEXIBUZHUANXIN,CHENGJIYIBAN,QUEFAGUORENDEYISHUCAINENG,AIZAIJIETOUYOUDANG。LIANGCITOUKAOWEIYENAYISHUXUEYUANLIANGCIDOUMINGLUOSUNSHAN。JIEXIALAIBUDEBUKAOLINMOMINGXINPIANJIANNANDURI。1913NIANDAOLEMUNIHEI,TADE“YISHUSHENGYA”YOULEMINGXIANDEGAIGUAN。TACHUANGZUODEYOUHUAMAIDEBUCUO,TASHENZHIJIMEIMEIBAOLAJIQUYIBAIDIGUOMAKE,NEIZAIDANGSHISHIYIBIBUXIAODEKUANXIANG。YIZHANDANGBINGQIJIAN,TAHAIWEIQIANXIANBAOKANTIGONGHUAGAO。CONGZHENGZHIHOU,TACHOUKONGZUOHUA。SHENZHIZAIDANGLEZONGLIZHIHOU,TAHAISHIQIANBISUISHENDAI,YOUKONGHUAQILAI。ZAIQINEIXINSHENCHU,TAHAISHIJUEDEZIJISHIGEYISHUJIA。TACENGDUIYIGEYINGSHOUCHUFADEPOCHANYISHUJIAWANGKAIYIMIAN:“ZHEIGERENSHIYISHUJIA,WOZIJIYESHIYISHUJIA,YISHUJIABUDONGDEJINRONGJIAOYI。”XITELEDESIRENSHEYINGSHIHAIYINLIXI-HUOFUMANCENGZHEIYANGGONGWEITADEZHUREN:YISHUJIADEQIZHINAISHIXITELEZUIBENZHIDETEZHENG。

浙江风采网 XITELESHANGTAIBUJIUBIANYAOZAIMUNIHEIJIANZAODEYIZHIYISHUDASHA。1933NIAN10YUE15RI,QIUGAOQISHUANG,SHUYIQIANJIDEMUNIHEIRENLAIDAOKAIKUODESIFANGXINGCHANGDI,CAIQIPIAOPIAO,LEDUIZOUQIXITELEZUIZHONGAIDEYINLEJIALICHADE-WAGENADE“NIULUNBAODEMINGESHOU”,YIPAIZHUANGZHONGXIQINGDEQIFEN。SHICHENYIDAO,XITELEJIANBUDENGSHANGZHUXITAI,YIGESHENZHEZHONGSHIJIFUZHUANGDENIWAJIANGDIJITAYIBAYINGUANGSHANSHANDELANGTOU,XITELEYAOWEIYISHUDASHADIANJI,TAERHUABUSHUO,LINQILANGTOUBIANZAXIANGJISHI。LANGTOUPENGSHITOUYINGPENGYING,LANGTOUNANENGPENGDEYING?ZHITINGDAO“GA”DEYISHENG,LANGTOUBENGLIE。XITELEMIANSEHUIBAI,QUANCHANGSIJIYIPIAN。HAISHIXUANCHUANBUZHANGGEPEIERFANYINGJIMIN,SHUO“ZONGLIZHEIYILANGTOUZADEWENZHUNHEN”。KEZHEIYEXIAOCHUBULETAXINTOUDEBUKUAI,GUANZAIFANGZILIJITIANBUCHULAI。JIANZHUSHITELUSITEYEWEICIBINGDAO,JIGEYUEHOUBIANYIMINGWUHU。YISHUDASHANAISHITAYU1925NIANQINZIHUACHUDESHEJICAOTU,YESHIXINSHENGNACUIDEGUODEXINGXIANGGONGCHENG,XITELEZHEIYIZAJINONGZALE,BUXIANGZHIZHAOLONGZHAOZAIMUNIHEIDESHANGKONG。

YIZHANHOUDESHINIAN,XITELEDEYISHUREQINGYIFANGMIANZHUANXIANGJIANZHUSHEJI,LINGYIFANGMIANJIUSHIREZHONGYISHUPINDESHOUZANG。DANGSHIZHUMINGDEJIANZHUSHEJISHITELUSITESHITADEMIYOU,BINGSHENSHOUQIYINGXIANG。HOULAITAYOUJIESHILETIANCAIDEJIANZHUSHIAERBEITE-SHIPEIER(AlbertSpeer,1905-1981),BINGJIANGQIRENMINGWEIJUNBEIBUZHANG。SHIPEIERSHANYUJIANGXITELEDEJIANZHUCAOTUJIAGONGCHENGZHENZHENGDESHEJITU。1945NIANTALINWEISHOUMING,YAOTAJIANGDEGUOSUOYOUDEJICHUSHESHICHEDIGANJINGDIJIAYIPOHUAI,KETAMEIYOUZHIXINGXITELEDEZHEIYIMINGLING,SUOYIZAI1946NIANNIULUNBAOGUOJIFATINGDUITASHENPANSHI,MIANTAYISI,DANPANTAERSHINIANTUXING。2008NIANTADEERZICENGLAITONGJIZHONGDEXUEYUANZUOBAOGAO,ZICHENGFUYE,JIANGDEYESHIJIANZHUYISHU。ZHEIDOUSHIBIZHEDETIWAIZHIHUA,JIUCIDAZHU。

浙江风采网 XITELECONGSHANGSHIJIERSHINIANDAICHUJIUKAISHISHOUJIYISHUPIN,TATEBIEXIHUANSHIPICIWEIGE(CarlSpitzweg,1808-1888),CENGTUOHUASHANGDAIGOUTADEZUOPIN。DANGSHANGZONGLI,YIWEIZHEQUANHEQIANDEDAFUDUZENGJIA,QISHOUZANGYUYESHISHUIZHANGCHUANGAO。ZHIYAOSHITARENDINGLEDEZUOPIN,BIANHUIBUXIDAIJIADIMAILAI。BOLINHUASHANGKAER-HABOSHITUOKESHIXITELEGOUHUADEWEITUOZHE。KETAYONGRENYOUYI,YOUSHIWEIMAIYIFUHUATONGSHIWEITUOLIANGGEREN,LIANGGEWEITUORENZAIPAIMAIXINGLIJINGXIANGTAIJIADEQINGKUANGYEBUXIANJIAN。

浙江风采网 SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI,TADUIHUIHUASHOUZANGJIANJIANFAZHANCHENGYIZHONGCHIMI。TAZAIBEIERGEHUOFUBIESHULIQINZIDAIRENGUAHUA,TAJINGCHANGTANLUNNEIXIESHUYUTABENRENDEHUAER。JIANZHUHEYISHUSHIDIANCHI,JITADEXINLINGTIGONGNENGLIANG。TACENGSHUO:“MEIYOUYISHUSHIWOFANGSONG,WOHUIBIANCHENGSHENMEYANGA!?”

浙江风采网 TASHOUZANGDEXINGQUZHONGXINSHIDEGUOLANGMANPAIDEHUAJIA,QIANMIANTIDAODESHIPICIWEIGEJIUSHIQIZHONGZHIYI;LINGWAIHAIYOULVCINA、DEFULEIGEER、MAKATEDENG。HELANDELUNBOLANGYECENGHUANQITADEXINGQU,YINWEITARENWEILUNBOLANGSHI“ZHENZHENGDEYALIANREN”。XITELEHAIPIANAISECAIMINGLANGDEYIDALIWENYIFUXINGSHIDAIDEHUAZUO,ZHEISHIYINWEIYIZHANZHONGTAZHONGLEMEIQI,YANJINGDUISECAISHIQUMINRUIDEGANSHOULI,ZHIYOUSECAIMINGLANGDEHUAPINCAIHUISHITASHANGXINYUEMU。

XITELESHIDADUCAIZHE,SHIHANJIANDEZHENGZHIDONGWU,TADEYISHUPIANHAOZONGGUITUOLIBULEZHENGZHIHEYISHIXINGTAI。TAZUIRONGRENBUDEXIANDAIPAIYISHU,MAXIANDAIPAIYISHUJIASHI“FENGZIHETUIFEIPAI”,TAMENDEZUOPINSHI“JIXINGDEHUTULUANMO”。SUOWEITUIHUATUIFEI(Entartung)YICIYUANXIANLAIZIYOUTAIPIPINGJIAMAKESI-NUOER,ZAOZAI1893NIANTAJIUKAISHIPIPINGXIANDAIPAIYISHU。XITELEQIANGDIAOXINGSHISHANGDEXIANSHIZHUYI,YAOQIUZHONGYUZIRANDEFUZHI。ZAIWEIYENASHIQI,TAJIUYIYAOQIUXIJIEDEJINGQUE,HOULAITAYOUJIANGZHEIZHONGMEIXUEYUANZETISHENGDAOYISHIXINGTAIDEGAODU。

XITELEDEHEXINJIAZHINAISHITADERENZHONGXUE。WANGCHENGSHIJIEZHURENZHONGZHONGYALIANRENXUETONGZUIGAOGUI,ERRIERMANREN,ZHUYAOSHIDEYIZHIRENHESIKANDENAWEIYABANDAODEBEIOUREN,ZESHIZUICHUNCUIDEYALIANREN。YALIANRENSHI“WENHUADECHUANGZAOZHE”,QITAMINZUZESHI“WENHUADECHENGSHOUZHE”,YOUTAIMINZUGENGSHIBEIBIANWEI“WENHUADEHUIMIEZHE”。TARENDING,YISHUSHI“DAZHONGZHENSHIXINLINGDEZUISHENKEDEBIAODA”,SUOYITAPIANAIMINJIANTICAIDEYISHUPIN;TAYAOQIUWENXUEYISHUTICAITIEJINMINZHONG,YIYUWEIMINZHONGLIJIEHEJIESHOU。TACENGTICHU,“DEYIZHIDEJIUSHIMINGKUAIDE”,ZHEIJUYULUZAIDANGSHIBUJINGERZOU,CHENGWEIYISHUCHUANGZUODEZHIDAOYUANZE。TATUICHONGLANGMANPAIHUAJIA,RENWEITAMENSHI“ZHENZHENGMEIHAOYISHUDEDAIBIAO”。TADUILANGMANZHUYIDEMILIANDAOZHITADEZHONGZUZHUYIJIQUANZHUYIZHENGZHIZUIHOUDEPOCHAN。DEGUOZHUMINGZUOJIALVDIGE-SAFULANSIJI(RudigerSafranski)CENGZAIQI《LUNLANGMANPAI》YISHUDEQIANYANZHONGSHUO:“NACUINANDAOSHILANGMANMA?YUQISHUOTASHIKUANGYEDELANGMANZHUYIHAIBURUSHUOTASHIFANCHANGGUAIYIDEFANLIXINGZHUYI。”TAHAISHUO:“LANGMANYOUYIYUSHI,QUEYOUHAIYUZHENGZHI,YIDANTAWURUZHENGZHIQITUDEHUA,JIUHUIKAISHICHUXIANZHONGZHONGWENTI。”

XITELEJIANGZHENGZHIHEYISHUZHIYUXIANGHULIANXIZHIZHONG。YINWEIZAITAKANLAI,ZHENGZHIZAIYISHUZHONGBIAODAZIJI,YISHUFANGUOLAICUJINJIAQIANGGUOJIAZHENGQUAN。TAJIANGZHENGZHIHEYISHUJIANDANBINGLIE、RENWEILIANGZHEXIANGHUYINGXIANGDEXINNIAN,BIAOMINGTAYAOYIYISHIXINGTAIHEYISHUQUTUIXINGZHENGZHI。ZAITADETICHANGXIA,DISANDIGUOCENGCHUXIAN“YIGEDEYIZHIQIANSUOWEIYOUDEYISHUFANRONGDESHENGKUANG”。RANERXUJIADEFANRONGBINGMEIYOUYUTADEZHONGSHIJISHIDEBAONVETONGZHIXIANGDEYIZHANG。

XITELEZAIJIJITUIXINGYISHUWEIZHENGZHIFUWUDETONGSHI,DUINEIXIEYIYIYISHUJIAZHANKAILEYANKUDEPOHAI。TAZAIYICIJIHUISHANGFASHIYAODUINEIXIEFANRENZHONGGUANNIANDEYISHUJIAJINXINGYICHANG“SAODANGZHAN”,QINGXI“KONGTANJIA、BANDIAOZIYISHUJIAHEYISHUPIANZI”。WEILEPEIHEYUANSHOUDEJIANGHUA,DIGUOXUANCHUANBUZHANGGEPEIERZUZHILEYICI“DUOLUOTUIFEIYISHUZHAN”。ZIYINXIANGPAIYILAIDEGEZHONGXIANDAILIUPAI,TEBIESHIDEGUOSUOTEYOUDEBIAOXIANZHUYILIUPAI,DOUBEISHUOCHENGSHI“TUIFEIPAI”。1937NIANXIATIAN,TASUOJIANLIQILAIDEYIGEWEIYUANHUISHENCHALESANSHIERPIGUANFANGSHOUZANGDEHUAPIN,QIZHONGYOULIUBAIFUBEIDINGXINGWEI“DUOLUOTUIFEIYISHUPIN”。SHANGMIANSUOSHUODEDEYIZHIYISHUDASHAHAISHIJIANCHENGLE,JIUZAIZHEIGEYISHUDASHAZHANLANKAIMUDEDANGTIAN,ZAIJINGEJITIAOJIEDEDIFANG“DUOLUOTUIFEIYISHUZHAN”YEKAIMULE。GEPEIERXIANGTONGGUO“HEIBAIDUIZHAO,JIANGCHENGFENMING”DUI“TUIFEIYISHUJIA”LAIGEXIAMAWEI。BEIDAISHANG“TUIFEI”MAOZIDEYOUENSITE-BALAHE(ErnstBarlach)、MAKESI-BEIKEMAN(MaxBeckmann)、BAOLUO-KELAI(PaulKlee)、MAKESI-LIBOMAN(MaxLiebermann)HEAIMIER-NUOERDE(EmilNolde)DEYOUHUA。ZHEIGEHUAZHANZAIMUNIHEIYIZHIBANDAO1937NIANDE10YUE,HOULAIYOUDAOQITACHENGSHIXUNZHAN。BIZHEZAIDEQIJIANCENGCANGUANYIGEHUAZHAN,YOUFUHUAJIUJIAO《CANGUANTUIFEIPAIHUAZHAN》。ZHIJIANDENGHOUCANGUANDERENQUNPAICHENGWANWANQUQUYOUCUYOUZHANGDEDUIWU,XIANDEYAOBUKEJIDEZHANTINGJIUSHITAMENDEMUBIAO。ZHENZHENGDEYISHUBUPANIDANGQUANZHETIESHANGSHENMEBIAOQIAN,NIPINIDE,WOKANWODE,ERQIEZHEIYOUSHIMINGZHENGYANSHUN。

BEIDAISHANG“DUOLUOYISHUPIN”MAOZIERZAOZHIMEISHOUDEYOUHUAHEBANHUAYUELAIYUEDUO,NACUIBINGMEIYOUJIANGQIFUZHIYIJU,ERSHITONGGUOHUASHANGDEYUNZUOMAIDAOLEGUOWAI。XITELETANJICISHISHISHUOSHI“JUEJIAOYI”,KANLAISHIZHUANQULEDALIANGWAIHUI。NACHUYIBUFENBUCHANGJIAOCHU“TUIFEIYISHUPIN”DEBOWUGUAN,SHENGXIADEQIANLAIWANCHENGXITELEDEQITAYISHUXIANGMU。

XITELESHIAODILIREN,LINCINAISHITADEGUXIANG。HOULAITARENWEIZHIYOUDEYIZHIDIGUOCAINENGDANDANGTONGZHISHIJIEDE“TIANJIANGDAREN”,YUSHIGAIHUANMENTING,YAOSHENYIBIAN,CHENGLEDEGUOREN。1938NIAN3YUETAGENGSHITUNBINGLEGUGUOAODILI,XUANBUAODILIWEI“DEGUODIQU”。YINGGAISHUODANGSHIAOGUOMINZHONGDADUOSHIQIAOLUODAGUGAOSHENGHUANHULAIYINGJIEDEGUOJUNDUIDE,DANHAISHIYOURENFENQIFANKANG,CONGDIANYING《YINLEZHISHENG》KEKANCHUQIZHONGDEQINGJING。GAISHITAIBAOJIUZHUABUFANDUIPAI,BINGDUIQICAICHANSHOUZANGJIAYIMEISHOU;YOUTAIRENDEYISHUPINYECHENGLENACUIDANGRENDENANGZHONGZHIWU。ZUIHOUJIANGMEISHOUCHONGGONGDEDOUSONGJINWEIYENADEYIZUODALOULI。ZHEISHIFENGCHUAN,AODILIDEGUOBAOYAOBEIYUNDAODEGUO,DEAOSUISHUOTONGWENTONGZHONG,KEYEYINQIAOGUOMINZHONGDEYILUNXIONGXIONG。GENJUNACUIZHIDINGDE“YUANSHOUYOUXIAN”DEYUANZE,CISHIJIAOYOUXITELEQINZICHULI。TAZHISHI,JIANGZHEIYIWANJIANDESHOUZANGPINFENSANDAOAODILIDEXIAOCHENGSHI,YAOTIAOXUANZUIHAODEYISHUPINLIUJITADEGUXIANGLINCIDEBOWUGUAN。XITELEZAOZAIQIQINGNIANSHIDAIJIUXIANGBAZHEIGEDUONAOHEPANDELINCIJIANCHENGYIGEXINDEWENHUAZHONGXIN。1941NIAN3YUEXITELEZAIGEPEIERDEPEITONGXIARONGGUIGULI,KAOCHANEILIDEJIANSHEQINGKUANG。XITELEXUANCHENG,YAOBALINCIJIANCHENG“DUONAOHEPANZUIMEIDECHENGSHI”;GEPEIERBANGQIANG,ZHEIJIANGCHENGWEI“DEGUODEBUDAPEISI”。SHENZHIYAOHEWEIYENASHUANGFENGBINGZHI,LIANGSHUIFENLIU,BINGJIAQIQU。ANZHAOJIHUA,YAOJIANDAIYOULANGZHUMENTINGDEPINGDINGDALOU,HAIYAOJIANZAODIANYINGZHIPIANCHANG、HUAJUYUAN、NIBOLONGGENDAQIAO;TAMENDIAOLAILEQUANDEZUICHUSEDESHEJISHIJIANZHUSHI。XITELEYAOZAI1950NIANWANCHENGGAIZAOLINCIDEJIHUA。RANERRENSUANBURUTIANSUAN,1945NIAN5YUETABIANJUQIANGZICAI,“LINCIDETEBIERENWU”YEHUACHENGLEYICHANGCHUNMENG。

浙江风采网 XITELESHIGEDADUCAIZHE,SHIGEFANRENLEIDESHARENMOWANG。KETADUIJIANZHUHEHUIHUAYISHUXIANGDANGREZHONG,YEXIANGDANGNEIXING。WEILEMIBUZIJIZAIZHEIFANGMIANDEBUZU,TAHAIPINRENWENJIYUYOUGUANDEZHUANJIA。LUDEWEIXI-TELUSITEHEAERBOTE-SHIPEIERDOUSHIZAIJIANZHUFANGMIANDEYISHIZHIXUAN;HANSI-BOSEHEHEERMAN-FUSIYEDOUSHIJIANSHANGYISHUPINFANGMIANDEZHUANCAI,TAMENYEDOUSHIXITELEZAIJIANZHUHEHUIHUAFANGMIANDEGUWENHECANMOU。HUASHANGHABOSHITUOKEHEQISIRENSHEYINGSHIHUOFUMANYEDOUCHENGLEXITELEDEJINGJIREN。TABEIHOUYOUQIANGDADEGUOJIAJIQI,TAYOUSHANYU“LIFA”,ZAI“YUANSHOUYOUXIAN”DEHUANGZIXIASHIDETADEQIAOQUHAODUODOUBIANCHENGLE“HEFASUODE”。ZAIZHONGSHENXINGLIEZHONG,HEERMAN-GELINYESHIJUEQUYISHUPINDEXINGJIA,YOUSHISHENZHICHENGLEXITELEDEJINGZHENGDUISHOU,RANERZAIYUANSHOUMIANQIANTAZONGDEYAOTUIBISANSHE。

浙江风采网 ZHANHOUYAOWUGUIYUANZHU,KEQIAOQUHAODUOLAIDECHENGQIANSHANGWANDEYISHUPINZENNENGZHAODAOQIJIUSHIDEZHUREN?ZHEIQIANSHEDAOZHENGGEOUZHOU,SHENZHIQUANSHIJIE。DAJIADOUBATAMENDANGZUOTANGSENGROU,SHEINENGDESHOUSHEIDOUXIANGYAOTAYIKOU。LIANJIEFANGZHEMEIGUODABINGZAIJIEFANGHAERCIDEGUOCHENGZHONG,JINGYETOUZOULEDEGUOHUANGDIHAIYINLIXISISHIDEYIGU。YIBAIJIUSHIYIJIANZANGPINSHIZONG,XIANZAIHAIZAIZHUISUOZHONG。ZHEISHIYIBUYOUQUDESHU,PILULEXUDUODEMIXIN,SHIRENMENKANDAORENDEDUOWEIXING。